IVDD is a disease that can affect your dog's spinal cord and cause painful mobility issues. Today our Erin vets explain the causes and treatments for IVDD in dogs.
Intervertebral Disk Disease - IVDD
Intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) in dogs is a painful condition that can also be described as a ruptured, slipped, bulging or herniated disk. This condition is most commonly seen in breeds with longer spines such as beagles, dachshunds, Pekingese, Shih Tzus, basset hounds, or American cocker spaniels but can occur in dogs of any breed.
Causes of IVDD in Dogs
IVDD is a degenerative process that affects the spinal cord of dogs as they age, progressing gradually and often going unnoticed. Even with regular yearly check-ups, your veterinarian may not detect any signs of IVDD until your dog's discs have become hardened and ruptured, resulting in noticeable and painful symptoms. If your dog has IVDD, even a simple action like jumping onto the sofa can cause damage to a weakened disc, triggering acute and painful symptoms.
IVDD occurs when the discs between your dog's vertebrae, which normally act as shock absorbers, gradually harden and lose their ability to cushion the vertebrae effectively. As a result, the hardened discs can bulge and put pressure on the spinal cord, leading to damage to the dog's nerve impulses, including those responsible for bladder and bowel control. In some cases, a simple jump or an awkward landing can cause one or more of the hardened discs to burst and press against the nerves in the spinal cord, causing pain, potential nerve damage, or even paralysis.
Symptoms of IVDD in Dogs
IVDD can develop in any of the discs in your dog's spine and symptoms of this condition will depend upon which part of the spine is affected, and how severe the damage is. Symptoms of IVDD can come on gradually but are equally likely to appear suddenly. If your dog is displaying any of the following symptoms seek veterinary care as soon as possible. IVDD can be very painful for dogs and early treatment is essential for preventing the condition from becoming more severe or causing irreversible damage to your dog's spine.
Signs Your Dog May Have Cervical IVDD - Neck
Cervical IVDD occurs in the discs of the dog's neck. If you may notice one or more of the following symptoms, which can affect the whole body and range from mild to very severe contact your vet for immediate advice, or visit your closest animal emergency hospital for veterinary care:
- Arching back
- Shivering or crying
- Reluctance to move
- Unsteadiness in all 4 legs
- Head held low
- Knuckling of all 4 paws
- Inability to support own weight
- Inability to stand
- Inability to feel all 4 feet and legs
- Inability to walk normally
Signs Your Dogs May Have Thoracolumbar IVDD - Middle Back
Dogs with Thoracolumbar IVDD have a damaged disc causing issues in their back region and may display one or more of the following symptoms. Symptoms of Thoracolumbar IVDD mainly affect the mid to back portion of the dog's body and can range from mild to very severe:
- Tense belly
- Weakness in hind legs
- Crossing back legs when walking
- Muscle spasms
- Knuckling of back paws, or dragging rear legs
- Inability to support their own weight
- Unable to move or feel back legs
- Inability to walk normally
Signs Your Dog May Have Lumbosacral IVDD - Lower Back
If your dog is suffering from lumbosacral IVDD the problematic disc or discs are located in your dog's lower back region. Symptoms of lumbosacral IVDD typically affect the very back of the dog's body and may range from mild to very severe:
- Pain and/or difficulty jumping
- Limp tail
- Urinary or fecal incontinence
- Dilated anus
Diagnosing Dogs with IVDD
Immediate veterinary care is required if your dog begins showing any of the above symptoms. Tests for diagnosing IVDD in dogs typically include standard x-rays, a neurological exam, and/or MRI to help locate the disc or discs causing your dog's symptoms.
Treatment for IVDD in Dogs
Treatment for IVDD needs to begin as early as possible in order to achieve the best possible treatment outcomes. That's why we recommend taking your dog to the vet for a full examination if you spot signs of IVDD in your dog. Delays in treatment could lead to irreversible damage.
Anti-Inflammatory Medications For IVDD in Dogs
It is common for dog owners to inquire whether their dog can recover from IVDD without surgery. If your dog is diagnosed early with a mild to moderate IVDD injury, your vet may try treatment with steroid and anti-inflammatory medications (to help reduce pain and swelling), combined with strict crate rest for approximately 4 - 8 weeks.
Surgery to Treat Dogs with IVDD
Surgery is typically recommended for dogs suffering from more severe cases of IVDD where rest and medication are not sufficient to reduce pain and other symptoms. During surgery, your dog's veterinary surgeon will remove the hardened disc material which is pressing on your dog's spinal cord and causing the IVDD symptoms.
The cost of IVDD surgery varies greatly depending on a number of factors including where you live, but you can expect to pay anywhere from $1,500 to $4500. Your vet will provide you with an accurate estimate and breakdown of costs.
Surgery outcomes are most successful in dogs that have not lost their ability to walk. If your dog's surgery is not successful in returning your pet to normal mobility, a dog wheelchair can help your canine companion to enjoy a happy and active life while living with IVDD.
Recovery from IVDD surgery requires 6 - 8 weeks of restricted activity. Running, climbing stairs, playing with other dogs, or jumping on furniture need to be prevented in order to avoid further damage as your dog's spine heals.
Physical Rehabilitation for Dogs
Following surgery, your veterinarian may also recommend physical rehabilitation (physical therapy) for your dog in order to work on muscle strengthening and to help get your pet moving comfortably again.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.